By Michael N Cardwell, Margaret R Grossman, Christopher Rodgers
The area alternate association (WTO) contract on Agriculture has had a primary impression on agricultural coverage around the world. the hot WTO agreements will hide agriculture,sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical boundaries to alternate and alternate in highbrow estate rights. This ebook addresses the interface among the legislation of overseas agricultural exchange, the rising felony and monetary order for agricultural alternate below the auspices of the WTO, and its influence on agricultural coverage reform either within the eu Union and the united states. With contributions from major professionals within the applicable parts.
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4, 5 and Annex 5). The URAA requires conversion of non-tariff barriers into tariffs through a process called tariffication. , p. 3). Further, to ensure minimum market access, the URAA authorized a system of TRQs, or two-tiered tariffs. Under the TRQ system, countries must accept a minimum quantity of imports – by 2000, at least 5% of base-period domestic consumption – at the lower tariff. Minimum access quantities can include products imported at lower tariffs under long-standing agreements. A higher tariff can be charged for quantities above 5% of domestic consumption.
However, this may not be problematic in WTO terms. As noted above, while payments cannot be based on production in any year after the base period chosen, the current green-box criteria in the URAA allow the calculation of payments for a decoupled scheme by reference to the type or volume of production in the base period itself (Annex 2, para. 6(b)). Payments for what is termed structural-adjustment assistance provided through resource retirement programmes are covered by paragraph 10 of Annex 2.
Agriculture was also a subject of the Implementation Decision adopted at Doha to focus on developing countries’ problems in implementing WTO agreements (WTO, 2001b). vp Thursday, October 16, 2003 1:15:04 PM Color profile: Disabled Composite 150 lpi at 45 degrees The URAA and Domestic Support 33 measures notified by developing countries to promote rural development and ensure food security (Art. 1). Domestic Support In negotiations under the Doha Declaration, a central objective is ‘substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support’, that is, reductions going beyond those achieved by the URAA (WTO, 2001a, Art.
Agriculture and international trade: law, policy, and the WTO by Michael N Cardwell, Margaret R Grossman, Christopher Rodgers